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Blue Book on the Development of Global Science and Technology Associations


Science and technology associations are the product of the socialization, organization and institutionalization of scientific and technological activities. They are the gathering places of scientific and technological talents and innovation resources. They carry the important missions of prospering academic exchanges, cultivating scientific and technological talents, promoting international cooperation, and promoting industry-university integration. The birth, origin and development of modern science are closely related to scientific and technological associations, and the emergence and transfer of world science centers are all marked by the emergence of scientific and technological community clusters with strong influence, high activity and a certain scale. In the 16th century, the Italian Renaissance took the lead in opening the road of modern science, and the Linqin Academy was established in 1603. In the 17th century, the British "Glorious Revolution" advocated natural science and removed feudal ideological obstacles for the development of modern science. A number of scientific and technological associations such as the Royal Society played a backbone role in leading the establishment of science and the first industrial revolution. In the 18th century, the wave of the Enlightenment promoted the rapid development of science and technology in France. The French Society, the Paris Geographical Society and other scientific and technological associations gathered a large number of scientific and technological talents, leading the trend of French scientific and technological development. In the 19th century, Germany rapidly developed into a world industrial power, and a large number of scientific and technological associations, such as the German Physical Society, the German Chemical Society, the German Mathematical Society, and the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Promotion of Science (the predecessor of the Mapp Society), flourished. In the 20th century, science and technology in the United States advanced by leaps and bounds, and the number of science and technology associations increased sharply. The cluster of science and technology associations represented by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers played an important role in transferring the global science and technology innovation center to the United States and establishing the status of the United States as a global science and technology innovation center.
At present, scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation are in-depth interactive evolution, science and technology and economic society are interpenetrating each other, science and technology and human resources are constantly gathering in communities and spaces with good development momentum and excellent innovation ecology, scientific paradigm revolution is emerging, interdisciplinary integration is accelerating, international science and technology competition is becoming increasingly fierce, scientific and technological innovation across organizations, boundaries and fields is constantly promoting the transmission, sharing, integration and renewal of knowledge, it profoundly affects the development process of global politics, economy and society, and then gives birth to the realistic demand of global science and technology governance. With the progress of science and technology and the evolution of the relationship between science and society, the connotation, extension and function of science and technology associations are also deepening and expanding. Science and technology associations are becoming borderless innovation organizations across countries and disciplines. The disciplines are expanding from traditional disciplines to frontier, emerging and interdisciplinary disciplines. The service objects are expanding from professionals to the public. The organizational form is changing from mutual benefit organizations to both mutual benefit and public welfare organizations. The number and scale are growing rapidly, and the system functions are becoming more and more perfect, it plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the improvement of global science and technology governance and creating an open innovation ecology.
The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China emphasized that science and technology are the primary productive forces, talents are the primary resources, and innovation is the primary driving force. We must thoroughly implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, the strategy of strengthening the country with talents, and the strategy of innovation-driven development, and open up new fields and new ways of development. Continuously shape new kinetic energy and new advantages for development. The three major strategies of rejuvenating the country through science and education, strengthening the country with talents, and innovation-driven development are the deepening of the understanding of the regularity of modernization, and further demonstrate that the country's demand for strategic scientific and technological support is more urgent than ever before. Science and technology support Chinese-style modernization and serve the governance of China. Science and technology organizations should be the first and take the lead. Speeding up the construction of first-class scientific and technological associations with Chinese characteristics has become an inevitable requirement for building a world scientific and technological power and a strategic requirement for comprehensively enhancing national strength.
In the face of complex, profound and broad changes in the world, the times, history and science and technology, the development of global science and technology associations ushers in new opportunities and challenges. In order to accurately grasp the historical position and world coordinates of my country's science and technology associations, and actively explore the development path of China's science and technology associations in the unprecedented changes in a century, the Science and Technology Innovation Department of the China Association for Science and Technology and the China Science and Technology Policy Research Association jointly launched the "Blue Book on the Development of Global Science and Technology Associations. The Blue Book summarizes the development history, discipline layout, management mechanism, and development trend of global science and technology associations. It is divided into three chapters and sixteen chapters: comprehensive, country, and outlook. It provides a panoramic analysis of science and technology associations in 9 countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan, and summarizes the common characteristics and development experience of world-class science and technology associations. The stones of other mountains can be used to attack jade. It is hoped that this book can provide reference for better planning and promoting the construction of first-class scientific and technological associations with Chinese characteristics facing the world and the future.
As the first blue book focusing on the development of global science and technology associations, this book is completed on the basis of a large number of previous research results. Due to the limited ability of editors, and the global science and technology community is always in a dynamic change, it is inevitable to hang a leak, omissions and deficiencies welcome readers to criticize and correct.