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2022

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06

[Good article sharing] Strengthening the role of digitalization in improving the effectiveness of the national innovation system, an excerpt from "National Innovation Power Measurement and International Comparison"


Digitalization provides new opportunities for the improvement of the efficiency of the national innovation system. It will not only affect the way in which innovation subjects participate in innovation activities, but also affect the results of innovation and its application, thereby improving the management efficiency and development efficiency of the national innovation system.
 
On the one hand, innovation subjects can extract more valuable information through big data analysis to assist management decision-making and improve the management efficiency of the national innovation system; on the other hand, digitization helps to form a new scientific research paradigm, which provides new scenarios and new functions for economic and social innovation and development, so as to enhance the development efficiency of the national innovation system, as shown in Figure 1.
 

Digital technology has the characteristics of high permeability and high integration, can be applied to various fields of science and technology, economy and social development, and is deeply integrated with science and technology in many fields, constantly giving birth to new technical fields and application scenarios. Major countries in the world are stepping up the digital transformation of their national innovation systems. China urgently needs to seize the opportunity of digital transformation and promote the efficiency of the national innovation system.

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Digitalization helps lift the country

Management effectiveness of innovation system

 

Digital transformation helps the management department to grasp the innovation activity information of different innovation subjects in the national innovation system, reduce the information asymmetry between the information management department and the management object, and effectively coordinate the relationship between the innovation subjects, so as to improve the management efficiency of the national innovation system.

 

1. Achieving monitoring and evaluation of scientific and technological activities

 

The analysis of micro-level scientific and technological innovation activities is a difficult problem for traditional scientific and technological innovation governance. The use of subjective survey or interview methods to understand the behavioral characteristics of scientific and technological activities is inefficient and scientific. Big data provides the basis for the characterization of the behavior characteristics of scientific and technological activities at the micro level, while digital technologies such as machine learning provide a way for its characterization and expand the functions of traditional scientific and technological intelligence. With the use of science and technology information database or platform, more and more science and technology records and information can be obtained, which brings new opportunities and challenges to the concept, mode, method and technology of traditional science and technology information service. Under the premise of not breaking the law, we can analyze the information of scientific research activities of scientific researchers, depict the law of scientific research activities, and master the research hotspots concerned by scientific researchers. At the same time, standardized scientific and technological information records (such as literature records and patent records) can also be used to depict the characteristics of scientific and technological activities of scientific research subjects and the mode of cooperation between scientific research subjects, so as to provide support for the management of scientific research subjects and scientific and technological activities. In addition, at the enterprise level, big data technology is used to collect and analyze enterprise science and technology information records to depict the layout of enterprises in each subdivision of science and technology, so as to support the government's layout in industrial policies and scientific research projects. Artificial intelligence technology can also be applied to the intelligent analysis of scientific and technological development trends and environmental changes, helping decision makers to grasp its characteristics and laws in a timely and effective manner, and formulate countermeasures in a timely manner, transforming low-value data advantages into high-value decision-making advantages, and then Transformed into emergency response and guidance and control advantages for technological development.

 

2. Realize innovation policy evolution and effect tracking

 

The tracking and effectiveness evaluation of innovation policy is the basis of government innovation governance, and its importance is more prominent in the context of the increasingly complex innovation system. As an important strategic resource and governance method, big data makes full use of its dynamic monitoring of policy tracking and in-depth excavation and analysis, supplemented by the monitoring and analysis of the scientific and technological innovation policies and strategies of the world's major scientific and technological powers, and the scientific formulation of new The policy and strategy of scientific and technological innovation have important supporting role and reference value. Text mining, network analysis, artificial intelligence and other technologies can be used for the fine analysis of policy text big data, and by building a scientific and technological innovation policy resource platform and intelligent analysis platform, improve the government's scientific and technological innovation policy development trend analysis, policy effect evaluation, Future situation prediction and other aspects of management efficiency. In addition, a complete and whole-process policy database can be established to facilitate regular tracking of differences in scientific and technological innovation policies in different periods, regions and even countries, and to keep abreast of foreign scientific and technological innovation policy trends, so as to provide basis and support for formulating coping strategies.

 

3. Optimizing science and technology foresight and science and technology strategy formulation

 

It is a common method for decision makers to rely on experts to predict the development of science and technology to support the formulation of science and technology strategy, but it can not grasp the development of science and technology objectively and comprehensively. In the era of big data, the analysis of more and more innovative big data can make up for the deficiency of the traditional scientific and technological foresight method based on the subjective judgment of experts, and reduce the dependence on the judgment of experts who are not necessarily comprehensive in knowledge and experience. However, while big data facilitates the analysis of scientific and technological information, it also brings a lot of information "noise". In order to extract useful information, big data technology combined with artificial intelligence analysis to assist expert judgment, fully realize the interaction between experts and objective information, and optimize the accuracy of expert prediction. More importantly, exploring the law of scientific and technological development through data mining and analysis can provide a more scientific data basis for scientific and technological foresight. The integration of digital technology into technological foresight also enables accurate prediction and identification of disruptive and key technologies. The "China Advanced Energy 2035 Technology Foresight" clearly stated that the supporting role of big data and artificial intelligence can be fully utilized to improve the quality and efficiency of technology foresight that urgently needs to be resolved in methods. In addition, in order to improve the operability, we can also build a data analysis platform based on scientific and technological data mining, and make better use of big data analysis and information visualization technology to study scientific and technological strategy through the integration of knowledge map and scientific and technological development.

 

4. Promote the deepening management of science and technology projects and plans

 

The management of science and technology projects and plans is an important task of science and technology management departments. From project initiation, execution, evaluation to application, the process has long been integrated with digital technology. Digital technology can promote the deepening management of science and technology projects and plans, and realize the transformation from closed management that restricts the development of science and technology to open governance that promotes the development of science and technology. The traditional closed management model mainly relies on the information of the project itself, and cannot systematically consider other information related to the project to make effective decisions. It is necessary to establish a data sharing and integration platform for various departments, domestic and foreign science and technology projects, and use big data analysis and scientific measurement methods to achieve effective management of science and technology projects through an open governance model to assist project managers in scientific decision-making. In addition, the digital open governance model of science and technology projects and plans can effectively monitor and evaluate the quality of scientific and technological achievements. The open sharing of data can not only optimize the management level of science and technology projects and plans, but also deepen the monitoring and disposal of scientific research integrity problems in the implementation of projects and plans.

 

 

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Digitalization helps lift the country

The Development Efficiency of Innovation System

 

Digitalization helps to enhance the ability of knowledge production, knowledge diffusion and knowledge application, and then enhance the development efficiency of the national innovation system.

 

Digitalization contributes to knowledge production

 

Digitalization is conducive to the transformation of scientific research paradigm, and promotes the trend of intelligent, cross and open knowledge production activities, so as to improve the efficiency of knowledge production and expand the boundary of knowledge production. Digitalization can create a scientific research paradigm of human-machine collaboration and improve knowledge production capacity and efficiency. In the traditional national innovation system, research design, experimental operation, data analysis and other scientific research links are mainly completed by people, so they will be limited by computing power and analytical ability. In 2007, Turing Prize winner Jim Gray proposed the fourth scientific research paradigm-data-intensive scientific research paradigm after experimental science, theoretical science and computational science, which emphasizes the discovery of the inherent laws of scientific problems through massive data processing. The concept of data-intensive research paradigm has attracted close attention from the academic community, but it is still far from being truly realized. The main reason is that data analysis technology is weak and data infrastructure is not perfect, which makes it difficult to extract truly useful knowledge from big data. Breakthroughs in digital technology have greatly improved the ability to process big data, making the data-intensive research paradigm expected to be truly realized.

 

For example, cloud computing can help scientists process and analyze large amounts of multidisciplinary data, promote data sharing and collaboration, and achieve long-term data preservation, while artificial intelligence can solve complex computational problems, collect large-scale data, and optimize experimental design. The 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors shows that the development and adoption of digital technologies is transforming every stage of the scientific research process, from agenda setting and scientific experimentation to the communication and evaluation of research results. Digital technology also helps to acquire "tacit knowledge". Tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge acquired through subjective knowledge and perception, which is often hidden behind a large amount of information with "noise" and cannot be compiled or explicitly presented. With the help of digital technologies such as big data, people can extract useful information from a large amount of data, which is difficult for human beings to find, and turn it into knowledge for application in the process of research and development, design, production and organization.

 

Furthermore, digital technology can promote technological integration and open development. Digital technology can not only reduce the cost of communication between experts in different fields, but also deeply integrate with other fields of technology, so as to continuously expand the frontier of science and technology. In the context of the digital age, open source has become an inevitable trend in the development of the national innovation system, which will provide continuous impetus for expanding the frontier of knowledge. In the open source technology system, data becomes a new factor of knowledge production, which can reduce the information asymmetry between the supply and demand of factors, accelerate the optimization and reorganization of other knowledge production factors such as capital and talents, and blur the boundaries between different innovation subjects. Contribute to open innovation.

 

2. Digitalization contributes to the diffusion of knowledge

 

Digitalization enriches the tools, approaches and models of knowledge diffusion, improves the quality and efficiency of knowledge diffusion, and expands the depth and breadth of knowledge diffusion. In the non-digital context, knowledge diffusion usually needs to be achieved through collaborative research and development, personnel mobility, and face-to-face communication. Due to the limitations of space, time, language and other factors, not only the scope of knowledge diffusion is relatively limited, but also the quality of knowledge diffusion is relatively poor, the cost is relatively high, and the efficiency is relatively low. Studies have shown that the farther the spatial distance, the higher the cost of personnel mobility, communication and cooperation, the greater the loss of knowledge transfer, the lower the quality and efficiency of knowledge dissemination, that is, the spatial attenuation of knowledge diffusion. Digitalization can eliminate the limitation of knowledge dissemination, realize the effective dissemination of digital knowledge, and improve the original knowledge dissemination ecology.

 

Digitalization helps to enrich the tools, ways and modes of knowledge diffusion, and promotes the development of knowledge diffusion with the characteristics of diversification, refinement, orientation, dynamic and platform. Digitalization has expanded the channels of knowledge diffusion, enabling more knowledge to be transmitted from knowledge producers to users in a faster way through richer tools. The emergence of new channels such as new media and digital publishing has promoted the diversified development of knowledge diffusion. Digitalization makes knowledge diffusion change from the "one-way" communication mode centered on knowledge producers to the "two-way" communication mode of interaction between knowledge producers and knowledge users. This change can reduce the information asymmetry in the process of communication, clarify the content and direction of knowledge dissemination, and promote the refinement and directional development of knowledge diffusion, so as to effectively improve the efficiency of knowledge diffusion. Digitalization can eliminate the communication restrictions caused by factors such as spatial attenuation: technologies such as big data enable knowledge to be disseminated, copied, shared and processed on a large scale and at low cost, without being subject to geographical restrictions between knowledge producers and users; intelligent translation technology can ensure barrier-free communication and cooperation between scientific and technological personnel in different countries, so that knowledge diffusion can transcend the limitations of space, time and language. Therefore, digitization has significantly improved the depth and breadth of knowledge diffusion, ensured that knowledge is spread more comprehensively and timely at a faster speed, and promoted the dynamic development of knowledge diffusion. Under the digital background, the emergence of knowledge sharing platform, industrial innovation platform and other digital platforms not only expands the knowledge diffusion channel and optimizes the knowledge expansion mode, but also promotes the interaction between different subjects of innovation. Knowledge diffusion presents a platform development trend.

 

 

3. Digitalization helps the application of knowledge

 

Digital technology has a wide range of permeability and compatibility, can be combined with non-digital technology, realize the integration and linkage of multiple technologies, create new application scenarios, and form new development capabilities, development momentum and development models. It is becoming a new round of industrial revolution. The main driving force. The deep integration of digital technology and traditional product processing, product assembly, manufacturing management and other technologies can help enterprises realize the whole process information perception and optimal control of industrial production, reduce production costs, improve production efficiency, and promote the transformation of industrial innovation and development to the direction of intelligence. The combination of digital technology and digital platform with traditional procurement, logistics and warehousing systems can widely connect upstream and downstream suppliers and customers to form a digital innovation ecosystem, which helps to introduce user needs into the whole process of product production and service, and give birth to new modes and formats such as shared manufacturing, service-oriented manufacturing and personalized customization, Promote the development of industrial innovation in the direction of ecology, platform and service.

 

Digitalization also enhances the use of technology in the public service. The application scope of science and technology in the traditional public service field is limited by time and space, the application scope is limited, and the application cost is high. Digital technology can be combined with the application of public technology in education, medical care, transportation and other public fields to improve the supply capacity and quality of high-quality public services, and promote the equalization and universality of public services. For example, in the field of medical services, by combining virtual reality (VR)/augmented reality (AR) technology with traditional medical detection and imaging technology, a "digital twin" of a patient's specific anatomical structure can be constructed to help doctors improve the accuracy of medical judgments; in the field of energy, the combination of digital technology with energy extraction, power generation, power transmission, energy storage and other technologies will help promote the intelligent development of distributed energy systems, accurately match energy demand and energy supply to improve energy system efficiency; in the field of transportation, technologies such as intelligent sensing and satellite navigation can be combined with traditional means of transportation, giving birth to new formats such as unmanned driving, robot distribution and intelligent logistics.

 

 

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Multi-measures to promote the country

Digital Transformation Innovation System

 

1. Strengthen digital R & D and promote knowledge production

 

The first is to build a digital technology innovation system and promote breakthroughs in key core technologies. At present, China's digital technology innovation system still has shortcomings. In 2019, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology found that more than 300 key technologies related to the digital industry, such as high-end chips, industrial control software, core components and basic algorithms, are still subject to human control. The "Digital China Industry Development Report (2020)-Information and Communication Industry" issued by the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology pointed out that the situation that the core technology of my country's information and communication industry is controlled by others has not fundamentally changed, and the basic technology industry system and high value-added links The problem of "stuck neck" is prominent. To this end, we should focus on data collection, data storage, data transmission and data processing, and promote the research and development of digital technology breakthroughs and iterative updates. In addition, in the context of the new round of scientific and technological revolution, scientific and technological progress is increasingly driven by the ability of mutual development of technology. Therefore, it is necessary to accelerate the cross-integration of different digital technologies, digital technologies and other technologies, and give birth to new scientific and technological fields. Promote the continuous expansion of the frontier of knowledge production.
 
The second is to strengthen the construction of digital scientific research platform, create a man-machine collaborative scientific research paradigm, and promote the cross-integration of science and technology. The role of digitalization in promoting knowledge production is mainly reflected in the two levels of human interaction and human-computer interaction. At the level of everyone's interaction, we should build a digital platform for scientific and technological cooperation, strengthen the construction of virtual laboratories, online conferences and other application scenarios, ensure that researchers in different fields, different backgrounds and different regions can carry out scientific and technological exchanges and cooperation at any time, and promote the cross-integration of science and technology; at the level of human-computer interaction, we should support the use of digital technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence to assist researchers in experimental design, operation and analysis, free researchers from mechanized operation and complex calculation, put more energy on creative and ideological scientific research activities, and form a new scientific research paradigm of human-computer cooperation.
 
The third is to promote scientific and technological cooperation and interdisciplinary integration. We will improve the regulatory framework for the opening of scientific research data, ensure that scientific research data can be found, accessed, interoperated and reused for specific purposes, support the establishment of open and shared digital platforms for scientific and technological resources in various regions, promote the precise docking of suppliers and users of scientific and technological resources such as scientific research instruments and equipment, and improve the efficiency of the use of scientific and technological resources. Comprehensively consider the demands of scientific researchers, enterprises, governments and other stakeholders, promote the values of scientific and technological cooperation of collaborative innovation and equal cooperation, use digital technology and digital platforms to expand international scientific and technological cooperation channels, and build a global scientific and technological cooperation network. We will build a number of interdisciplinary research institutions, introduce interdisciplinary into the discipline system and science and technology evaluation system of colleges and universities, accelerate the cross integration of data science, computing science and other disciplines with natural science and social science, and promote the continuous expansion of the frontier of knowledge production.

 

2. Strengthen the construction of science and technology information platform network and promote knowledge diffusion

 

Digitalization has effectively broken the space-time limitation of knowledge diffusion and improved the innovation efficiency, but the knowledge diffusion still faces many obstacles under this background, and it is urgent to strengthen the construction of science and technology information platform network to promote knowledge diffusion. There are huge differences in the ability of different groups, regions and industries to obtain and apply digital resources, resulting in a digital divide and hindering the dissemination of digital knowledge. The construction of digital infrastructure and digital platforms such as data sharing centers, scientific and technological achievements transfer platforms, and scientific and technological cooperation platforms should be strengthened, and the application of digital infrastructure and digital platforms in education and training, scientific and technological achievements transfer, scientific and technological cooperation, and journal construction should be promoted. A knowledge dissemination channel that combines online and offline. Give full play to the positive role of various digital infrastructures and digital platforms in promoting the collaborative interaction between innovation subjects, open up the interaction channels between innovation subjects in various platforms through digital technology, and form a network of science and technology information platforms that promote the dynamic diffusion of knowledge among universities, scientific research institutions, enterprises and other subjects. Accelerate the construction of a management system that conforms to the new paradigm of digital knowledge diffusion, form a new management order that is conducive to the healthy development of digital knowledge diffusion, and promote the development of "open innovation" based on digital knowledge diffusion. Strengthen the training of digital skills talents, strengthen the digital training of talents in traditional industries, and make them adapt to the development of the digital age to support the construction of platform networks. Finally, data governance issues such as intellectual property management faced by knowledge diffusion in the context of digitalization should be strengthened to avoid data crises such as "big data deception" caused by the unrestricted dissemination of data knowledge.

 

3. Strengthen the digital empowerment of economic and social development, accelerate the application of knowledge

 

In order to strengthen the enabling role of digital technology in technology-driven economic and social development, it is necessary to create new functions and scenarios for digital empowerment, while improving the digital empowerment governance environment.

 

One is to promote the development of digital empowerment economy. Promote the construction of new infrastructure such as industrial digital platforms and industrial Internet, support enterprises to integrate digital technology with traditional manufacturing technology, develop digital enabling demonstration scenarios such as intelligent production lines, intelligent workshops and intelligent factories, and promote new models such as intelligent manufacturing, shared manufacturing, service-oriented manufacturing and personalized customization.
 
The second is to promote the development of digital empowerment society. Promote the combination of digital technology and technology applications in public fields such as education, medical care, transportation, social security, public safety, and environmental protection to create a safe, efficient and beautiful intelligent living environment.
 
The third is to strengthen the governance of digital empowerment. First of all, we should improve the institutional system for the application of digital enabling technology, prevent the monopoly of digital technology, and let digital enabling technology benefit more subjects, people and regions. Secondly, we should do a good job in risk prevention and control of digital enabling technology applications. On the one hand, strengthen the industrial security governance of digital empowerment, promote the standardization of new infrastructure such as industrial digital platforms and industrial Internet, improve the quality of digital empowerment products and services, establish a digital empowerment security situation awareness platform, monitor the application of digital technology in various scenarios in real time, and build a digital empowerment security base. On the other hand, strengthen the social security governance of digital empowerment, as well as the construction of the ethical system of digital empowerment, improve the ethical norms of the application of digital technology, enhance social trust in digital empowerment, and improve the application environment for the development of digital empowerment society.

 

4. Strengthen theoretical research and adjust policy concepts

 

It is necessary to strengthen the theoretical research on the digital transformation of the national innovation system. The first is to strengthen research on the national digital innovation system. From the perspective of subject composition, knowledge characteristics and the connection between subjects, the connotation of national digital innovation system is defined, including digital science and technology innovation system, digital industry innovation system, digital society innovation system, etc. On this basis, focusing on the structure, boundary and function of the digital innovation system, this paper analyzes the differences and interaction between the digital innovation system and other scientific and technological innovation systems, and thinks about how to integrate the digital innovation system with other scientific and technological innovation systems to improve the overall efficiency of the national innovation system. The second is to strengthen the theoretical and methodological research on the policy system of digital science and technology innovation. Based on the characteristics of integration and self-growth of digital technology, this paper studies and judges the conditions and policy environment needed for digital scientific and technological innovation, establishes an index system and framework for evaluating digital scientific and technological innovation policies from the aspects of innovation elements, innovation subjects, innovation platforms and innovation performance, explores the synergy between digital scientific and technological innovation policies and other scientific and technological innovation policies, and then constructs China's digital scientific and technological innovation policy system.

 

Technology itself is neutral, but the direction of technological development and its application in the economy and society cannot be separated from the guidance of the government's scientific and technological innovation policy. At present, digitalization is reshaping the national innovation system. On the one hand, it provides new impetus for innovation and development, and guides the economic society to transform to the direction of high efficiency and intelligence; on the other hand, it may cause excessive concentration of market power and the rise of monopoly, which in turn hinders the generation of innovation. Therefore, in the process of digital transformation, the government should actively formulate a policy framework for the digital transformation of the national innovation system and promote the digital transformation of the national innovation system. It is necessary to promote the construction of the national digital innovation system from "top-down" to "bottom-up. At present, my country has entered a new stage of development. A new round of scientific and technological revolution with digital technology as the main driving force is accelerating its evolution. The breakthrough, diffusion and application of technology are faster than ever before, and there is greater uncertainty in technological development. Sex. Therefore, the government should regulate the national innovation system in a more market-oriented and bottom-up way, make full use of society, especially enterprises, to select and modify innovation policy priorities, and closely link different innovation subjects together, so as to improve the efficiency of knowledge production and accelerate the flow and application of knowledge.

 

Kang Jin, assistant researcher of the Institute of Science and Technology Strategic Consulting, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Chen Kaihua, researcher of the Institute of Science and Technology Strategic Consulting, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and professor of the School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. This article is excerpted from the book "National Innovation Power Measurement and International Comparison.

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