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2019

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Summary of the Symposium on the Development of China's Science and Technology Innovation Policy in the Past 70 Years after the Founding of the People's Republic of China

To celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the the People's Republic of China, summarize the development achievements of China's science and technology innovation policy, and look forward to the future, sponsored by the Science and Technology Policy Professional Committee of the China Science and Technology Policy Research Association, and undertaken by the Social Science Association and Business School of Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University


In order to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the the People's Republic of China, summarize the development achievements of China's science and technology innovation policy, and look forward to the future, sponsored by the Science and Technology Policy Professional Committee of the China Science and Technology Policy Research Association, undertaken by the Social Science Association and Business School of Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, and supported by the editorial departments of "Science Research" and "Science and Society", the "China Science and Technology Innovation Policy Development Seminar and Science and Technology Policy Professional Committee Meeting" was held on May 18, 2019 at Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University. More than 40 experts and scholars from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University, China Academy of science and technology development strategy, University of Nottingham Ningbo, Zhejiang University, Tongji University, Fuzhou University, Wuhan University, University of science and technology Beijing, Central South University of economics and law, Zhejiang University of technology and Tianjin Institute of science and technology attended the meeting. Experts at the meeting discussed the thoughts and theories of China's science and technology innovation policy in the past 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the historical stages and characteristics of development, and the role of planning in China's science and technology development.

Feng Jianbo, deputy dean and deputy secretary of Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, pointed out the importance of science and technology policy research to national development in his opening speech, warmly welcomed the convening of the seminar, and introduced the development of the school. Researcher Fan Chunliang, director of the Science and Technology Policy Professional Committee of the Chinese Society for Science and Technology Policy, pointed out in his speech at the meeting that China's science and technology has experienced a brilliant development process in the past 70 years, and it is also facing huge challenges. The development of China's science and technology innovation policy in the past years has been discussed in depth, on the one hand, to promote the in-depth development of academic research, and on the other hand, to provide support for future policy consultation.
                                                   
Professor Cao Cong of the University of Nottingham Ningbo made a keynote report on "National System and China's Science and Technology Planning. He pointed out that the national system of scientific and technological innovation is a system in which the central government, under the guidance of national goals facing major strategic challenges, mobilizes and concentrates huge human, financial and material resources to organize R & D activities through top-level design and plan management, thus producing political, social, economic and military influence. Through the discussion of the different roles of the government in different types of R & D activities, he pointed out that whether the government should organize R & D activities through the national system depends on the nature of R & D activities, and discussed the necessary conditions for the adoption of the national system. Cao Cong pointed out that in terms of the relationship between the national system and science and technology planning, to explore the national system of scientific and technological innovation is actually to clarify the relationship between the government and the market, especially to clarify the role of the government in R & D activities. Those R & D activities suitable for the national system can be included in the science and technology planning. He pointed out that the formulation of science and technology planning to organize the research and development activities of the national system needs to learn from historical experience, decision-making must pay attention to the fact-based (evidence-based), to avoid government failure (system failure), coordination failure, to prevent the dislocation of public research and development resources, crowding out effect, inefficient use and other issues.
                                                 
In the seminar, 12 scholars gave special reports on issues related to science and technology innovation policies in the past 70 years. The main topics include: the development of China's science and technology thinking, the national science and technology system, the national science and technology innovation plan, the technology catch-up strategy, the patent legal system and industrial innovation, and technology Introduce, digest, absorb and re-innovate, cross-regional collaborative innovation, private economic innovation, high-tech zone innovation policy, policy text analysis, and reform of public scientific research institutions for technology development.
Science and technology ideas guide science and technology development and policy practice. Liu Li, a professor at the School of Marxism at Tsinghua University, divided the development of China's science and technology policy in the 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China into four stages: Mao Zedong's thought on science and technology (1949-1978), Deng Xiaoping's thought on science and technology (after the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 1978 and before the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee in 1989), the extension of Deng Xiaoping's scientific and technological thought and the preparation period of the new era of scientific and technological thought (since the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th Central Committee of the Party in 1989 to before the 18th National Congress of the Party in 2012) and the formation period of the new era of scientific and technological innovation thought (since the 18th National Congress of the Party in 2012 Since then), this paper expounds the main connotation and development and changes of scientific and technological thought in various stages. He pointed out that Mao Zedong's thought on science and technology inherited the Marxist theory of science and technology; Deng Xiaoping's thought on science and technology reiterated that "science and technology is the primary productive force", fully demonstrated that intellectuals are part of the working class, and emphasized the leading role of scientific and technological modernization in the "four modernizations"; The thought of scientific and technological innovation in the new era answers the essential questions of scientific and technological innovation, why and how to develop science and technology, A leap in scientific and technological thinking has been achieved.
                                                        
Professor Qian Wei, director of the Science, Technology and Civilization Research Center of the University of Science and Technology Beijing, discussed the national system of science and technology in the 70 years since the founding of New China. He defined the national science and technology system as "taking national interests as the highest goal, national coercive force as the guarantee, and public financial support as the main means to mobilize and deploy national scientific research forces to conquer a certain world cutting-edge scientific and technological field or national major The working system and operating mechanism of scientific and technological projects", he pointed out that China's "national science and technology system" is different from "big science, with obvious" Chinese characteristics ", it is not the result of the natural evolution of scientific development, but more reflects the characteristics of top-down artificial promotion and administration. Qian Wei divided the historical evolution of the new China's science and technology system into four stages: the establishment stage of the new China's science and technology system (1949-1959), the formation stage of the science and technology system (1959-1979), the reform stage of the science and technology system (1979-1999) and the establishment stage of the new science and technology system (1999-2019), and analyzed the organizational evolution under the science and technology system, the necessity, novelty, development dilemma and countermeasures of the new national system of science and technology are discussed.
                                                           
Professor Liang Zheng of the School of Public Administration of Tsinghua University discussed the formulation and implementation of national science and technology planning. He combed the development process of China's science and technology planning, and divided the development of China's medium and long-term science and technology planning into the planned economy period (1949-1978), the transition period (1979-1991), the new period of socialist market economy (1992-2006), the period of independent innovation and the construction of a powerful country in science and technology (2006-present). Through the analysis of typical national science and technology planning practices such as EU Framework Plan, Japan Science and Technology Basic Plan, South Korea Science and Technology Basic Plan, Germany High-tech Strategy and BMBF Nanotechnology Forecast, the management characteristics of science and technology planning are summarized into five aspects: attaching importance to the whole cycle management of science and technology planning, focusing on the overall coordination of science and technology planning, legalization and proceduralization of science and technology planning, and relying on diversified professional institutions to carry out the specific implementation of science and technology planning, establish an open, standardized and accountable project review and management mechanism.
                                                        
Fan Chunliang, a researcher at the Institute of Science and Technology Strategy Consulting of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, investigated the evolution of China's science and technology catch-up strategy over the past 70 years, and sorted out the evolution of the idea of "catch-up" in the 70-year development process by exploring the background, meaning and methods of "catch-up" in China's science and technology development in different historical development stages; combining the relationship between catching-up-learning-innovation and the perspective of institutional learning and institutional innovation, this paper analyzes the achievements and problems of China's catching-up in science and technology.
                                                        
Associate Professor Jiang Nan of Shanghai International Intellectual Property Institute of Tongji University reviewed the history of China's patent legal system and industrial innovation in the past 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and divided the historical stage of the development of patent law into the stage of patent law development before the reform and opening up (1949-1978), the development stage of patent law after the reform and opening up and before China's accession to the WTO (1979-2002), the development stage of patent law from China's accession to the 18th CPC National Congress (2003-2012) and the development stage of patent law after the 18th CPC National Congress (2013-present) summarize the changes and main problems in each stage of the development stage of patent law, and summarize the mechanism and law of interaction between patent legal system and industrial innovation practice.
                                                               
In the course of China's 70 years of scientific and technological development, in addition to the important role of top-level design such as strategy, system and planning, the development of regional and enterprise practice is also indispensable. Scholars attending the meeting also discussed policy issues such as enterprise technological innovation, cross regional technological cooperation, private economic innovation and high-tech zone innovation policy.
Professor Li Guang of the Development Research Institute of Wuhan University conducted a case study on the practice of introducing, digesting, absorbing, and re-innovating optical fiber and cable technology of Changfei Optical Fiber and Cable Co., Ltd., a landmark enterprise of "Wuhan • China Optics Valley", and obtained many aspects Enlightenment. Li Guang pointed out that in some research fields where my country's high-tech development lags behind, it is effective to always adhere to technology introduction, digestion, absorption, and re-innovation; in order to ensure the sustainable development and industrial safety of my country's high-tech industry, we must attach great importance to the key core technologies of the industry According to the correlation between the upstream and downstream technical links of the industrial value chain, we should strengthen original innovation, integrated innovation and introduction, digestion, absorption, in order to realize the sustainable development of China's high-tech industry, we must create a better innovation ecosystem and strive to build a community of interests in industrial technology innovation. China's high-tech enterprises should attach importance to the core position and leading role of technological innovation in comprehensive innovation, and always adhere to market-oriented or user-oriented technological innovation; at the same time, governments at all levels provide funding for high-tech industries and high-tech enterprises, which is very critical to the sustainable development of high-tech industries and the construction of technological innovation systems for high-tech enterprises.
                                                             
Researcher Li Chuncheng, director of the Tianjin Institute of Science, took Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei as an example to analyze the development process and policy trends of cross-regional scientific and technological cooperation and collaborative innovation in the 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China. He divided the 70 years of cross-regional scientific and technological cooperation and collaborative innovation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei into five stages: the first stage is the period of economic recovery and the establishment and adjustment of the science and education system in various regions (October 1949 to October 1978); the second stage The main content is the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei economic cooperation under the leadership of the planned economic system, and the development of science and technology in each region is still in the construction period of laying their own foundation and expanding scale (November 1978 to the end 1991); the third stage is the gradual development of the market mechanism, driven by the national strategic layout, and entered a period of comprehensive exploration and development at all levels driven by Beijing-Tianjin scientific and technological cooperation (January 1992-December 2012); the fourth stage is the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Incorporated into the national strategic layout, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei collaborative innovation has entered the stage of comprehensive layout promotion and collaborative innovation community construction (January 2013 to December 2018); the fifth stage Beijing-Tianjin-Tianjin-Hebei collaborative development has entered a new stage, beijing-Tianjin-Hebei collaborative innovation is expected to usher in more policy, institutional breakthroughs and technological innovation breakthroughs (since January 2019). From the 70 years since the founding of New China, we can get three enlightenments from the process of cross-regional cooperation and collaborative innovation in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei: first, cross-regional scientific and technological cooperation and collaborative innovation is a gradual historical process based on the development of various regions. it is the natural result of the development of transportation system, industrial system, science and education system; second, innovation itself is the process of marketization and industrialization of technology, from scientific and technological cooperation to collaborative innovation is an evolutionary process from government-led to market-led, but the degree of market-led formation is closely related to the degree of market development; third, the national strategy promotes the effective development of my country's cross-regional scientific and technological cooperation and collaborative innovation. Important role. Restricted by the local "separate cooking" financial system, my country's cross-regional scientific and technological cooperation and collaborative innovation must break through the shackles of their respective interests and need to be promoted at the strategic level. Finally, Li Chuncheng looked forward to the development trend of cross-regional collaborative innovation and policies in China. He proposed that the importance of cross-regional collaborative innovation in China is increasing day by day, and the layout will be further deepened and improved. The collaborative innovation community is expected to receive more attention from the theoretical research and practical exploration of regional innovation, and the development and reform of cross-regional innovation policies will be further upgraded with the development of cross-regional world-class urban agglomerations and industrial clusters, the coupling and linkage mechanism between the core cities of the three major science and technology centers and the functional positioning of other cities will be further upgraded.
                                                            
Professor Lin Chengliang of Ningbo Institute of Technology of Zhejiang University discussed the 40-year innovation process of Zhejiang private enterprises, and pointed out that private economy, industrial clusters and technological innovation are the three major driving forces of Zhejiang's economic development. The progressive iteration of the technological innovation model of "cluster innovation-enterprise innovation-urban innovation" and the organic coupling of technological policies and enterprise innovation in response to enterprise innovation are the two major reasons for the rapid technological progress of Zhejiang enterprises. He divided the development process of private enterprises in Zhejiang into three stages: the cluster innovation stage (1980-2000), which relies on the innovation and strengthening function of industrial clusters to enhance the innovation capability of enterprises in the cluster; The stage of enterprise innovation (2001-2016) to enhance innovation capability through the construction of its own research and development investment and research institutions; The stage of urban innovation (2017-) to enhance innovation capability through the construction of a large platform for urban innovation. Through the summary of the gradual debugging process of science and technology policies and enterprise innovation models at various stages, he put forward two main experiences of Zhejiang science and technology innovation: one is three development stages, three innovation models switching, and three types of science and technology innovation policy support. Progressive iteration; the second is the coupling and linkage between the government and enterprises.
                                                      
Zhu Changhai, a doctoral student at the Institute of Science and Technology Strategy Consulting of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and others combed the 30-year evolution of the innovation policy of the National High-tech Zone. They pointed out that the birth of the national high-tech zone has its specific historical background, and the decision to establish the national high-tech zone is a response to seize the opportunity of the scientific and technological revolution and promote the reform of the scientific and technological system. The development process of national high-tech zones can be divided into three stages: "one entrepreneurship", "second entrepreneurship" and "three entrepreneurship"; in each stage, there are significant differences in the development orientation, policy system, construction path and park form of national high-tech zones. They divided the evolution of the innovation policy of the national high-tech zone into three stages: the first stage (1988-2001) is an innovation policy period focusing on promoting the realization of scientific and technological economic value; the second stage (2001-2012) is a transformation and exploration period. Innovation policy period; the third stage (2012-present) is a systematic innovation policy period. After empirical analysis, it is concluded that the three successful experiences of the national high-tech zone innovation policy are mission-driven policy goal setting, focusing on policy innovation and policy experimentation and the use of powerful policy tools. The enlightenment of the innovation policy practice of national high-tech zones can be summarized into the following four aspects: first, the combination of bottom-up and top-down, maintaining a tension between national orientation and local orientation; second, innovation policy indicators, as a hard constraint, play a greater role than policy provisions; third, the role of spiritual values of leading cadres; fourth, the effectiveness of innovation policies requires the agglomeration of innovative subjects in space.
                                                      
Researcher Li Zhe of the China Academy of Science and Technology Development Strategy discussed the development and reform of China's technology development public scientific research institutions. He divided the transformation process of technology development public institutions into "one line", "multi-point", "two layers" and "four sections". Li Zhe believes that from the perspective of industrial cycle and public governance, the significance of the transformation of China's technological development scientific research institutions lies in: first, for China's reality, the transformation, as a breakthrough in the reform of the scientific and technological system, alleviated the problem of the integration of science, technology and economy at that time; second, for the development of industrial technology, this transformation exploration has formed a path to institutionalize technological elements into the process of industrialization; third, for public science and technology governance, the transformation expands the observation perspective from "three-dimensional" to "four-only", adding a time dimension in addition to the government-market dimension, the R & D type dimension, and the institutional type dimension. He pointed out that China's "top-down" process based on the transformation of industrial scientific research institutions in the past few decades is a typical government-led "investment" model. For the transformed technology development public scientific research institutions, Li Zhe proposed "adjust the assessment orientation of state-owned enterprises, guide enterprises to strengthen medium and long-term scientific research accumulation; reform the salary system of state-owned enterprises, refine the implementation of personnel incentive policies and measures; guide enterprises to adjust innovation models, Actively adapt to changes in market demand" policy recommendations.
                                                     
Pan Yixiao, a graduate student at the Institute of Science, Technology and Social Development of Zhejiang University, analyzed Zhu Kezhen's transformation of scientific thought from liberalism to Bernalism. Jin Xiaodian, a graduate student at Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, introduced a study based on the text of the State Council's Government Work Report (1978-2019) to measure the government's attention to science and technology innovation since the reform and opening up.
                                                     
The reports of the speakers elicited a positive response from the participants, who had a lively discussion.

This seminar focused on the main topics of China's science and technology innovation policy in the past 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China. The reporting persons and participants conducted in-depth discussions and exchanges from different angles, colliding with many sparks of ideas, and promoting the in-depth understanding of China's science and technology innovation policy. Thinking and communication.

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