Expanding a new cooperative journey of scientific research between China and Russia

In early summer and May, the vast land of Russia is full of grass, flowers, sunshine and charming scenery. It coincides with the 80th anniversary of the establishment of the Vavilov Institute of Natural Science and Technology History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the world's first independent research institution for the history of science and technology.

In early summer and May, on the vast land of Russia, the grass is long, the flowers are in full bloom, the sun is shining, and the scenery is charming. It coincides with the 80th anniversary of the establishment of the Vavilov Institute of natural science and technology history of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the first independent research institution of science and technology history in the world. The delegation was led by Mr. Lu Jinghua, Secretary General of the Research Association, Mr. Zhang Bihui, former executive vice president, Professor Xu Weimin of Zhejiang University, Professor Chen Jianxin of Suzhou Institute of science and technology, Wang Ping, director of editorial department of scientific research management, and relevant personnel of Institute of science and technology policy and Management Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Bao Ou from the Institute of Science, Technology and Society, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, who is a visiting scholar in Russia, is a member of the delegation and serves as an academic translator.

The delegation visited the Vavilov Institute for the History of Natural Sciences and Technology and the St. Petersburg branch, and visited academic institutions such as Moscow University, Moscow Normal University, St. Petersburg University and Mendeleev Archives-Museum. On May 20, he had a discussion with his colleagues in Moscow, including the director of the history of scientific research institutions and science research center of the Russian Institute of science and technology history. On May 22, he had a discussion with more than 10 scholars, including korchinsky, director of the St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Institute of science and technology history, konashev, deputy director, and Dr. ashulova, director of the science and social research center.

The delegation made full advance preparations before the visit and submitted an interview outline to the Russian side. Russian scholars gave a detailed introduction to the issues of concern to Chinese scholars.

1, Overview of Science and Sociology of Science Research

Russian science research experienced the trough after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and now began to revive, pay attention to practical application research. In the Soviet era, the research of scientific economics was very weak. In the era of planned economy, there was no need to study such problems. Now it is very important. In the United States and other market economy countries, scientific economy is the foundation (funding, wages, innovation, etc.).

Russian scholars believe that sociology of science and psychology of science are part of science, but in reality, there are more scholars studying sociology of science than science. From the perspective of discipline development, sub-disciplines such as sociology of science should be concentrated towards science of science.
Science of Science Enters University Classroom China does better than Russia. Russian universities have not yet offered courses in sociology of science, but only carried out research in scientific research institutions, but there are relevant teaching contents in science and engineering universities, and Russian scholars have begun to call on the government to strengthen relevant education for young college students.

Dr. ashulova, a beautiful scholar known as the "new star" of Russian scientific and social circles, warmly introduced the situation of the research center of science and society of the Institute. The center is attached to the Petersburg branch and was established in 1969. The Centre has three main areas of work: the organization of institutional activities in the science of science and the sociology of science; the organization of international seminars; and the training of students and the undertaking of research projects. The center is a branch of the International Sociological Research Organization and the European Sociology Branch. In 2009, it founded the "Sociology of Science" magazine (the original "Science" magazine was closed), published in English and Russian, and has its own website. The center has a good connection with the Merton School and hopes to expand and strengthen exchanges and cooperation with Chinese scholars. At present, an important research project under study, "the form of an international scientific community", pays close attention to China's research and hopes to cooperate with China.

2. Pay attention to the research of scientific and technological talents

In the exchanges between Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russian personnel talked more about the issue of scientific and technological talents.

Dr. Alaghweijiang paid special attention to the causes and patterns of Russian brain drain after the collapse of the Soviet Union; 2) the situation of Russian talents abroad; 3) the research of female scientists (quantity, structure, change). The Russian brain drain has been around since 1987, the result of Gorbachev's "new thinking" at that time. Now compared with China, Russia has fewer returnees. In 2010, the Russian government began to implement a "returnee program" with 40 people per year (about US $50000 per person per year), and the funds were paid to individuals. The candidates must have made outstanding achievements overseas and undergo strict evaluation. The judging committee is composed entirely of experts, and the chairman is hired from abroad. The amount of money funded is not large, and the focus is on the establishment of a democratic system. Overseas Russian scholars believe that the degree of democracy in Russia is not high. Russian scholars are very concerned about China's talent policy, and are most concerned about China's experience in training young scholars, training plans, international student plans and talent training programs. The disintegration of the Soviet Union had an impact on the changes in the number of female scientists. During the Soviet period, the proportion of female scientists accounted for 40%; during the disintegration period, it rose to 49%, and now it is gradually returning to normal. Ethnic and geographical differences have a clear impact on female scientists, which is very prominent in border areas such as the Chechen Republic and non-Russian regions.

3, pay attention to scientific research institutions and organizations and resource allocation research.

Dr. Alaghweijiang believes that scientific research has three priorities: resources, funding, and talent. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the government did not set up a special fund to fund scientific research for a long time. Scholars insisted on making appeals. Later, the basic research fund, the social science fund and the youth fund (also known as the presidential fund) were gradually established.

Kolchinsky said passionately that there was a lot of scientific investment in the Soviet Union, and it was an illusion that the Soviet Union wanted to establish a communist science center in the world. In the Soviet era, the basic investment was the largest in the world, but now it is no longer possible. In fact, the Soviet Union's scientific investment is not only scientific aspects, including military, national defense, and industrialization, but also serves politics. 4 million researchers at that time, in fact, 500000 enough.

4, pay attention to the research of science and technology ethics.

Dr. Kozlov, the chief researcher of the History of Technology and Technology Research Office of the St. Petersburg Branch, introduced and presented his book "The History of Technology Research in St. Petersburg in the 18th and 19th Centuries". Dr. Kozlov first engaged in engineering practice and then turned to For academic research, he introduced the responsibility of engineers and research on ethics.

There are three principles of engineer ethics research: first, engineers must have a solid humanistic background and literacy before engaging in their own professional work, and figure out who to work for; second, engineers should be pure and pure; third, engineers should be in line with the times and responsibilities at that time.

5. Cherish the friendship and cooperation with China

the two countries have a long history of friendly exchanges and cooperation. Mr. Zhang Bihui deeply reviewed the past when Chinese scholars learned the experience of the Soviet Union during the founding of Chinese science in the 1980 s. Lu Jinghua said that the China Science and Technology Policy Research Association and the Vavilov Institute of Natural Science and Technology History have long-term friendly exchanges. The original "Science of Science" magazine of the institute was somewhat interrupted after it was suspended. The purpose of this visit is to establish a new Communication channels. Russian scholars also believe that there is a good basis for cooperation between the two sides, and Russia is now very concerned about China's experience. Both sides hope to further strengthen cooperation, expand and deepen exchanges, and have reached the intention of exchanging academic journals, exchanging information on academic activities, and sending researchers to cooperate in research.

In March 2011, Fang Xin, chairman of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Science and Technology Policy Research Association and deputy secretary of the Party Group of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, met with Yuri Mikhailovich Baturin, director of the Institute of Natural Science and Technology History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who was visiting China, and hoped to strengthen cooperation in the field of science and technology policy research between the two countries. In February 2012, Chairman Fang Xin sent a congratulatory letter to congratulate Vavilov on the 80th anniversary of the establishment of the Institute of Natural Science and Technology History. The visit of the research delegation has taken a substantial step forward in the cooperation between the two sides.

Key words: